A bitcoin block is a permanently recorded file containing information on transactions. Each block includes the cryptographic hash of the prior block in the blockchain, linking the two. The linked blocks form a blockchain. If you think of blockchain as a big spreadsheet in the cloud, then each row in the spreadsheet might be a block.
"We can verify the exact block where my bitcoin transaction was recorded."
A block is a record in the block chain that contains and confirms many waiting transactions. Roughly every 10 minutes, on average, a new block including transactions is appended to the block chain through mining. Source
Transaction data is permanently recorded in files called blocks. They can be thought of as the individual pages of a city recorder’s recordbook (where changes to title to real estate are recorded) or a stock transaction ledger. Blocks are organized into a linear sequence over time (also known as the block chain). New transactions are constantly being processed by miners into new blocks which are added to the end of the chain. As blocks are buried deeper and deeper into the blockchain they become harder and harder to change or remove, this gives rise of bitcoin’s Irreversible Transactions. Source
Block is a permanently recorded file at Bitcoin containing information on occurred transactions. Block is the record of the every recent transaction or its part that has not been recorded in the previous blocks. Practically in all cases blocks are added to the end of the chain, which contains all transactions and is called blockchain. When a block is added to the end of the chain, it cannot be changed. Each block contains information about everything that happened in previous blocks before it was created. Source
Blocks hold batches of valid transactions that are hashed and encoded into a Merkle tree. Each block includes the cryptographic hash of the prior block in the blockchain, linking the two. The linked blocks form a chain. This iterative process confirms the integrity of the previous block, all the way back to the initial block, which is known as the genesis block. Source